Refractive Eye Surgery

Refractive Eye Surgery

Refractive eye surgery is an eye surgery used to improve the refractive state of the eye and decrease or eliminate dependency on glasses or contact lenss.

This can include various methods of surgical remodeling of the cornea or cataract surgery. The most common methods today use excimer lasers to reshape the curvature of the cornea


What are Refractive Errors ?
  • Refractive Errors occur when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina.
  • The length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens can all cause Refractive Errors.
  • The cornea and lens bend (refract) incoming light rays so they focus precisely on the retina.
What are the different types of Refractive Errors ?

The most common types ofRefractive Errors are


  • Nearsightedness,
  • Farsightedness,
  • Astigmatism and
  • Presbyopia.

Nearsightedness (also called myopia) is a condition where objects up close appear clearly, while objects far away appear blurry. With nearsightedness, light comes to focus in front of the retina instead of on the retina.

Farsightedness (also called hyperopia) is a common type of refractive error where distant objects may be seen more clearly than objects that are near. However, people experience farsightedness differently. Some people may not notice any problems with their vision, especially when they are young. For people with significant arsightedness, vision can be blurry for objects at any distance, near or far.

Astigmatism is a condition in which the eye does not focus light evenly onto the retina, the lightsensitive tissue at the back of the eye. This can cause images to appear blurry and stretched out.

Presbyopia is an age-related condition in which the ability to focus up close becomes more difficult. As the eye ages, the lens can no longer change shape enough to allow the eye to focus close objects clearly

What are the signs and symptoms of Refractive Errors ?

Blurred vision is the most common symptom of refractive errors. Other symptoms may include the following:


  • Double vision
  • Haziness
  • Glare or halos around bright lights 
  • Squinting
  • Headaches
  • Eye strain


How are Refractive Errors diagnosed ?

An eye care professional can diagnoseRefractive Errors during a comprehensive dilated eye examination. People with a refractive error often visit their eye care professional with complaints of visual discomfort or blurred vision. However, some people don’t know they aren’t seeing as clearly as they could.

How are Refractive Errors corrected ?

Refractive errors can be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenss, refractive surgery

Selection Criteria for LASIK
  • Age 18 years or older.
  • Stable refractive error and correctable to 20/40 or better
  • Normal ocular health. Diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, macular degeneration, corneal ulceration or Keratoconus (cornealthinning) will also not be considered as viable laser eye correction candidates.
  • Individuals who have specific auto-immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus may find that their natural healing process could be compromised and that refractive eye correction will not provide a viable option for them
  • Pregnant women or those still nursing should also wait for their laser eye procedure as hormonal fluctuations during and after pregnancy have been known to alter the ocular prescription of an individual, making it difficult to evaluate an effective correction.
  • Uncontrolled Diabetes you might be ineligible for laser eye surgery however if your diabetes in controlled you may still be suitable.
  • -1.00 to –15.00D of myopia and < 8.00 D of astigmatism
  • Pupil size < 6mm (in room light)
  • Realistic expectations of the final results

  Peri-operative assessment on in order to decide upon your suitability for treatment. This may include test for


  • Dry eye,
  • Pupil size and intra-ocular pressure,
  • Night vision and contrast sensitivity
  • Corneal topography
  • Dilated retinal examination